Wildlife and Habitat Conservation in India

India, home to four of the world’s mega-biodiversity hotspots, is valued for its abundant wildlife and diverse habitat types. However, owing to urbanization and industrialization, this status is slowly changing. Flagship species, such as the Indian Bengal Tiger and Indian Elephant are now critically endangered.


However, the Government of India has undertaken many initiatives to conserve wildlife and their habitats, such as the following:

  1. Currently, India’s wildlife is preserved in 120+ national parks, 515 wildlife sanctuaries, 26 wetlands, and 18 bio-reserves.

  2. Some of the legal measures include the Wildlife Protection Act 1972, Prevention of Cruelty To Animals 1960, Forest Conservation Act 1980, Biological Diversity Act 2002, etc.

  3. Other initiatives include Project Tiger in the 1990s, Project Elephant 1992, Crocodile Conservation Project, UNDP Sea Turtle Project in 1999, Vulture Conservation, India Rhino Vision (IRV) 2020, Wetland (Conservation and Management) Rules 2010 and so on.

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